Crop Production

Cultural Practices

Soil & Climate

Soil : The pomegranate shows wide adaptability to varying soil conditions. It grows best on deep, rather heavy loam and alluvial soils which are ideal for its cultivation. Soils rich in organic carbon proved highly beneficial. It can tolerate soils which are limy and slightly alkaline. It can also be grown in medium or light black soils.
Climate: Pomegranate can adapt itself to a wide range of climatic conditions but is grown successfully in areas of cool winters and hot and dry summers. It can grow from the plains to an elevation of about 2000 m. Higher temperature is beneficial at the ripening period which produces sweeter fruits. The quality of the fruit is adversely affected in humid climate besides suffering from high incidence of pest and diseases. The tree is hardy in nature and can withstand drought to a considerable extent, but does well when enough irrigation is given.

Land preparation

Land is prepared by ploughing, harrowing, leveling and removing weeds. Pomegranate is propagated vegetatively by cuttings, tissue culture, air layering or gootee. Air layering is usually done during the rainy season and also in November-December. Planting is usually done in spring (February-March) and July-August. High density planting with spacing gives 2-2.5 times more yield than that obtained when the normal planting distance of 5 X 5 m. is adopted. Farmers have adopted a spacing of 2.5 X 4.5 m. Closer spacing increases disease and pest incidence. Pits of 60 X 60 X 60 cm. size are dug about a month prior to planting and kept open under the sun for a fortnight. Each pit is filled with top soil mixed with farmyard manure (20 kg) vermin-comopost (2 kg), neem cake (1 kg), pongamia cake (1 kg), furadon (20g) and super phosphate (500g). After filling the pit, watering is done to allow soil to settle down. Cuttings/air layers are then planted and staked. Irrigation is provided immediately after planting by drip irrigation


After pruning apply about, FYM-30 kg, Neem cake-1kg, Caster cake 0.5 kg, Vermi compost - 2kg, Super phosphate -1kg, DAP-500g, Magnesium sulphate -200g, Borax -20g and Phorate - 25g per plant. After 1 month/flowering apply about 250 g of Ammonium sulphate and 750g 19:19:19 per plant. At lemon size of fruits, apply 250g of Ammonium sulphate , 250 g DAP and 250 g potash per plant. Three months after flowering provide 500 g each of DAP and Potash per plant.

Fertigation and foliar sprays of nutrients

Where the farmers are having venturi system, instead of soil application of fertilizers they can go for fertigation with following schedule.

Name of the Fertilizer Quantity/haDays from pruning
Mono Ammonium Posphate (MAP)- 12:61:01.5 10-20
Calcium Nitrate210-20
Complex 19:19:190.531-40
Potassium Dihydrogen Ortho Phosphate - 0:52:34141-5061-7091-100111-120131-140
Potassium Nitrate- KNO3-13:0:45151-6081-90
Potassium Sulphate- 0:0:50171-80101-110121-130141-150
Zinc sulphate (2g)+Borax (1g)+Calcium Nitrate (2g) 50 th day
Zinc sulphate (2g)+Borax (1g)+Calcium Nitrate (2g80thday
Magnisium Sulpahte (2g)+ Ferrosus Sulphate (2g)+ Maganaese Sulphate (2g)+ Boric Acid (1g)Before flowereingduring floweringAfter fruit set$459.146$459.146
Shala Barrera702025-05-15
Shala Barrera702025-05-15


Process of bahar treatment

Bahar treatment

• Withhold the irrigation two months prior to the bahar
• In light sandy and shallow soils, withhold water for 4–5weeks
• Due to water stress, leaves show wilting and fall on the ground
• The trees are medium pruned 40-45 days after withholding irrigation.
• Give ethrel spray at 2 to 2.5 ml/l mixed with 5 g/l of DAP
• At this stage cover the roots with a mixture of soil and FYM and irrigate immediately.
• Apply the recommended doses of fertilizers immediately after pruning
• Consequently, new growth, profuse flowering and fruiting is observed
• Resume the normal irrigation.
• The fruits are ready for harvest 5 months after flowering.

Crop and grade regulation: 

A grown-up, well-managed tree at three years age gives 80–100 fruits annually, and increases by ten percent annually of which

· 8–10 % are of ‘A’ grade

· 20–25% of ‘B’ grade,

· Remaining ‘C’ and ‘D’ grades, and cracked fruits.

Improve average grade by crop regulation.

 After the fruit set, do not allow fruits to develop in clusters and keep only solitary fruits.
• Allow flower set on inner/thicker shoots to develop in to fruits, remove those which are developed terminally on weaker shoots
• After getting set, remove all the flowers coming thereafter.

Operation to be done during pre pruning and pruning

· Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture 2 days before defoliation.
· Prune the twigs carefully
· Sterilize the secateurs with sodium hypochlorite (2 to 3 ml/l)
· Defoliate with a mixture of ethrel (2 to 2.5 ml/l) + DAP 5g/l.
· Remove weeds and suckers
· Collect & burn fallen leaves /debris from the orchard
· Harrowing in interspaces is advocated.
· Apply full dose of well rotten FYM and P, 1/3rd N&K fertilizers + Micronutrients (ZnSO4, FeSO4, MnSO4 each 25g and 10g Borax (Boron) /tree)+ Neem Cake 1-1.5 kg / tree + Vermicompost 2 kg/tree+ Phorate10G @25g/tree or Carbofuran 3G at 40g/tree in shallow trench or ring (15-20 cm wide of 8-10cm depth) at 45-60cm away from the stem, cover the trenches properly with soil and give light irrigation immediately after fertilizer application.
· After 45 days apply 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen + 1/3rd dose of potash
· After 90 days apply 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen + 1/3rd dose of potash

Remove the pruned wood from the field

Retain flowers originating on stronger shoot

Pruned before leaf fall

Pruned palnt after leaf fall

Male and Female flowers

Male and Female flowers cut open

Male flower (TOp) and Female flower (BOttom)


Crop nutrition: Management of micronutrients

Research findings have indicated that optimum quantity of fertilizers and time of application for efficient utilization of nutrients can reduce decline in pomegranate due to diseases. Response of micronutrients like Zn, B and Mn has been noted for increasing the quality and yield of fruits.


Yield level varies from 8.0 to 15 t / ha. Fruits attain maturity in about 150 – 180 days from flowering depending upon the variety. A mature fruit gives a characteristic metallic sound when pressed gently and attains colour specific to the variety. Fruits can be graded depending up on the size (weight) into different categories as stated below:

Super size Fruit weight > 750g
King size Fruit weight 500 – 700 g
Queens Size Fruit weight 400 – 500 g
Prince Size Fruit weight 300 – 400 g.  


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